Browse Category: Web Analytics


Master Guide To Conversion Attribution Models

As a Digital Marketer, you would utilize various channels to advertise your business including Google, Facebook, Email and so forth. It’s significant for you to realize which sources are performing and at what level during the client venture.

Promoting attribution encourages you to comprehend the adventure of client contact focuses in detail, which further causes you to streamline advertising blend and drive more an incentive from your showcasing endeavors.

Let’s begin!


So What is Marketing Attribution?

Attribution is assigning credit for a conversion.

Marketing Attribution is the process of identifying sets of users activities in the form of touchpoints which leads to a conversion or sale.

In simple words, it’s the action taken by the client during their customer journey from seeing an advertisement to purchasing the product.

Conversion Attribution types

  1. Last Click Attribution Model
  2. Last Non-Direct Click Model
  3. Last Adwords Click Model
  4. The First Interaction Model
  5. The Linear Model
  6. Time Decay Model
  7. Position-Based Model Or U-Shaped
  8. Custom Attribution Model

Let’s understand each one in details!

1. Last Click Attribution Model

The most common type of attribution model is the Last Click Attribution Model. In this model, the entire credit is given to the last click which generated a conversion or a sale.


The vast majority of the marketers go with this model since they need to know which keyword generates conversion or which website created conversion or through which source the genuine conversion occurred. This model will totally focus on the last touchpoint.

But you won’t understand which other touchpoints were part of the customer journey because to you, they would also be equally important to understand and optimize them in the funnel. You should look for “Last Non-Direct Click” on Google Analytics to measure the effectiveness of the campaign, here it ignores the direct click

This is important because the customer will likely interact with you many times before conversion occurs.

2. Last Non-Direct Click Model

The Last Non-Direct Click Model is more useful than a standard last-click model. 100% of the conversion value is still assigned to a single last interaction. But, with last non-direct click, it ignores any “direct” interactions that occur right before the conversion.


Direct Traffic is the point at which anybody goes directly to your website by entering your URL or clicking a bookmarked interface. So this guest definitely thinks about your company.

3. Last Adwords Click Model


In the Last Google Ads Click attribution model, the last Google Ads click—in this case, the first and only click to the Paid Search channel —would receive 100% of the credit for the sale.

4. First Interaction Model

First Interaction model gives all credit to the first click/first touch, that leads a user to a website.

This model applies to the customers if they don’t subscribe or fill the form or make a purchase on your website. This model encourages you to understand the starting point of the customer on your site which is additionally driving value to your business.

If you go first interaction attribution model, you actually don’t know which other touchpoints contributed to a conversion in the journey. So it isn’t so useful, to review the key factor which generated conversion.

First-contact attribution model can be utilized when your goal is building awareness and driving customers to your site, for this situation, you need to know from where the clients are entering your site. If you are looking to understand the conversion funnel, I won’t suggest going with a first interaction attribution model.


For example, if a customer first finds your business on Pinterest, then Pinterest gets all of the credit for any sale that happens after that interaction.

It doesn’t matter if the customer found you on Pinterest, then clicked a display ad a week later, and then went to your site directly. Pinterest, in this example, gets the full credit.

5. The Linear Model

A Linear attribution model gives equal credit to all the interaction of your customer in their customer journey. In this model we can understand all the interactions which actually generated conversion, this helps us to further define our marketing strategy.


For example, a customer finds you on Instagram, signs up for your email list and later clicks an email link. The next week they go to your site directly and make an Rs1200 purchase. There are 3 interactions in this situation. Each interaction gets 33% of the credit, or a Rs 400 conversion value attributed to the channel when the purchase was made.

The only thing with this model is that we really don’t know which interaction point was the major contribution of the last activity, who ideally should get the maximum credit.  I would go with a linear attribution model if my goal is to understand which touchpoints are generating sales. Through this, I know all customer interaction which is driving value to the business and so it can be optimized.

6. Time Decay Model


The time rot attribution model gives the most extreme credit to the interaction/touchpoint which was nearer to the point of conversion. It gives a different value to each touchpoint from the point of interaction to the point of conversion with the last touch getting the maximum and the first touch getting the minimum. This model eliminates which interaction really guided a customer to a website. It’s not a recommended attribution model.

7. Position-Based Model Or U-Shaped


A position-based Attribution model is also known called as U-Shaped Attribution Model. In this model, the primary touch and the last touch is credited with 40% each as the value and the remaining 20% is divided between the other touchpoints.

In this model, all the interactions get credit, though first and last touchpoint is considered as the key drivers for actions, so they are credited with 40% each as the credit.

The other interactions among first and last are additionally significant interaction when we are taking a gander at the shopper venture, so offering credit to first and last disregards the significance of other touch focuses, as they are similarly significant for the activity to occur. Won’t recommend going with the Position-based attribution model.

8. Custom Attribution Model

Custom Attribution Model is an attribution model where you would custom be able to set the credit value for the basis of each interaction on your understanding.

If we have defined credit value for each touchpoint as below, as we want to give a bit higher credit to the first touchpoint as it starts the consumer journey and then we have given low credit to the rest of the touchpoints which are in between the first and last touchpoint. Finally, for the last touchpoint, we have given maximum credit, as that touchpoint is driving the conversion.


To set up this model, you would require developers to do as such. Also basis the results you have to keep optimizing the efforts. It’s one of the best from the above all but would need technical guidance to set up, which might also consume some time.

So How to choose the right Conversion attribution model for your business?

It’s vital to choose the right conversion attribution model for your business from which you can effectively optimize your marketing efforts based on multiple touchpoint data, which leads to higher ROI. You can consider the following factors before choosing the attribution model for your business.

Sources Contributing Towards Conversion

Check the sources which are contributing towards conversion. Google Analytics guides you to understand which sources are performing for your website. Have a look at the below sources which show how each source is performing.


Check Different TouchPoints for Conversions

Check different touchpoints that are part of the consumer journey prior to the conversion. Google Analytics allows you to check the multiple touchpoints of the journey.

touch-points-for -conversion

Time is taken by Users

Know how much time it takes for users to convert after their first interaction with your website. This will help you to understand the duration and then you can map it with different touchpoints in the entire journey.


Google Analytics helps you to understand the time to convert users under Time Lag Report.

Define Campaign Objective

Define the campaign objective which will help you to choose the right attribution model for your business. If your objective is to generate awareness for your brand, then the first touch attribution model is effective to measure the entry point for your customer. If your objective is leads or sales, you can go with last touch or linear attribution model. If you go with the last touch, it will help you to identify the last touch which is driving maximum results, basis which you can effectively optimize the touchpoint.

If you are going with linear, which I also prefer because, it helps me to understand each touchpoint in the entire consumer journey, which further helps me to build an effective strategy focused on each touchpoint.

Run Experiments & Optimize

Every touchpoint in the journey has a role to play, so you need to experiment continuously with different strategies including your ad copies, bidding strategies, targeting aspects, etc so that you know how significantly it’s helping you to improve your conversions regularly.

Wrapping Up

Selecting the right conversion attribution model is important for your business, this will help you to effectively improve your performance and reduce marketing efforts for all the touchpoints in the entire consumer journey. Set up your marketing attribution model today and let me know how much value it’s adding to your business!

Importance of Web Analytics for Business

Web Analytics may be defined as a system that collects, process and reports a web site data which can be used to get insights about customers and how they interact with a business’s site.

Using Analytics reports we get access to valuable data that helps the business to achieve their goals and objective. Most of the brands use such data to create strategies to achieve their goals.

So today, we are going to discuss Web Analytics and why it is important for business?

Importance of Web Analytics

1. Access to Accurate Data to Understand the Traffic

Access to Accurate Data Source: Pixabay
Access to Accurate Data

Web Analytics is all about data and reporting data but not all data is useful. Google Analytics provides valuable data which can be used to discover hidden trends and insights thus it is very important for a business.

However, this data alone can also mislead a business if irrelevant data is not filtered out. Google Analytics filter helps in refining the data and provide you with data that is important and relevant for your business.

For example: Using exclude filter to see data related to your real prospects and not office staff.

2. Helps you to Understand Website Audience

Understand Website Audience Source - Pixabay
Understand Website Audience

A website that does not provide its visitors good user experience can not think of getting business using it. In order to improve user experience, we must understand a website audience, devices they use, the language they speak etc.

Web Analytics provides this data to business through its reports and thus help them understand their audience and develop strategies to improve their user experience when they visit the website. For example:

a. Technology Report: Provide data about which technology, browser and OS and network being used by a visitor.

b. Behaviour Report: Provide data about how a visitor is engaging with the website and their behaviour on the site.

c. Demographic Report: Provide data to understand and better know the audience of the site.

3. Understand Return on Investment

Understand Return on Investment  Source - Pixabay
Understand Return on Investment

Web Analytics help in knowing ROI by tracking the performance of social media campaigns, email campaigns, ad campaigns etc.

By default, Google Analytics tracks only traffic from 3 mediums that are organic, referral and direct. In order to track the performance of traffic from other sources and mediums link tagging is used.

This help in understanding the performance of campaigns and source and mediums used for the campaigns. By using this data, we can know the ROI from campaigns and optimise them to improve it.

4. Improve SEO

Improve SEO  Source - Pixabay
Improve SEO

Another important benefit of using Web Analytics is that it helps in improving SEO for the site. It Helps in identifying issues like slow loading, browser or OS issues.

Landing pages that are getting most of the organic traffic for the site.

Metrics like bounce rates, landing page report, exit page report etc can also be used to measure the quality of pages. Google Analytics can also help in identifying new opportunities.

For example: Identifying keywords for which you have a good position but poor CTR. Using this insight, a business can improve the content for that keyword and thus improve CTR.

In order to get access to this data, one must link Google Analytics with Google Search Console.

5. Improve PPC Performance

Improve PPC Performance Source - Pixabay
Improve PPC Performance

Another important benefit of using Web Analytics is that it helps in optimising the performance of Google ads by providing the enhanced remarketing capability, import of goals, analytics remarketing audience and ecommerce transactions directly into Google Ads account.

It can also help to track the behaviour of the customer on the website after an ad click or impression in order to use these features, one must link Google Analytics with Google Ads.

6. Identify Pain Points

Identify Pain Points Source - Pixabay
Identify Pain Points

When it comes to providing great user experience all the pain areas of the website must be rectified and Web Analytics helps a business in identifying them.

Reports like exit page reports, site speed report, device, browser and OS report etc. These reports help in identifying the pain area of the website and thus help in rectifying them to improve the user experience of the visitors.

7. Optimise Conversion Funnel

Optimise Conversion Funnel Source - Pixabay
Optimise Conversion Funnel

Using Web Analytics, we can set a number of goals which are important for the business these can be signing up for the newsletter, buying a product, register for a demo of product etc.

While creating a goal we write down each and every step that a user must take to successfully complete goal on the site.

Google Analytics through funnel visualization helps in identifying how many visitors who enter the funnel gets successfully converted(Complete the goal).

This helps a business to identify at which point of the funnel the customers are getting dropped out.

Using this data, a business can identify any issues that might be present on the site or particular pages of the site that are leading to drop out of customers from the funnel and thus solve these issues so that maximum number of customers in the funnel is successfully converted.


Data Reporting  Source - Pixabay
Data Reporting

8. Data Reporting

Refining and optimization of data are necessary before its use. Using Web Analytics, a business can not only refine the data but helps in the visual representation of this data so that it can be easily understood.

Google Analytics has a variety of viewing options like:

a. Data View: Tabular representation of data

b. Percentage View: Representation of data as a pie graph

c. Performance View: Bar graph representation of data.

d. Comparison View: It allows to see whether each metric in the table is performing above or below average.

e. Pivot View: Creates a pivot table.

Besides this Google Analytics allows creating custom reports a report that can be customized based upon needs.


Web Analytics is a very useful tool that not only helps in understanding our audience but also helps you discover business insights that might not be visible directly.

No business can ignore Analytics if they want to provide a great user experience to its visitors as well as gain access to business insights.

If you like my post or have any question or suggestion feel free to write to me about it in the comment section below.

Learn the Basics of Google Analytics

What is Analytics?

Collection, measurement, reporting of our web data.

So who is an analyst?  Just think like that whenever you want to go and get a gift for your spouse we try to go ahead and reflect our historical conversation with them, what kind of things that they need, what kind of colour they like and then we try to go and pick gift accordingly.

Similarly, somebody who can actually go and look to our historical data someone who goes and draws insights of that data, and then act on those insights now your action can be right or wrong but they would be better than if you actually go and randomly do something.

Why do we need all these tools like google analytics, SAS, R, big data, etc. because data is so humongous the data is just too much right now. It will help us to analyze the data.




So again the question comes how this data made how all the company knows about our requirement?

Information on the internet travels in the form of small data packets, they are very small data packets which are mainly from one system to another system.

This is the data packets which are coming from my system and going to another server. Now, this data packets structurally are very similar to the postcards that we are used to posting.

Postcards used to have space for a stamp, space for receivers add, senders address, message and all.

Similarly like that in every data packets we certain headers. These headers contain information like:

(i) OS








All this information is impeded with this data packets and these headers are mandatory to fill with every data packets. It means when I open data packets from my system will go to Flipkart webservers.

It means Flipkart will know about my all above details.


For understanding hits, we take an example like:

What is the core products of Flipkart?

They sell a market place it is a digital mall they provide a platform for sellers and buyers to come together and do their transactions that is their core products or markets.

So, similarly, FK.COM core competency is not analytics their core company is to create a platform, therefore, they implement a tool like Google Analytics or web analytics.

Which help them to track user activity and present meaningful reports.

To implement WA solutions they put a code, javascript, snippet on each and every page that they want to track. This code creates a 1*1 pixels image on each page.

This image is transparent so you can’t see it. It is placed on the top right corner of their webpage but is stored on the GA server.

Now GA server can analyze all this data and present to us in meaningful reports. Every time we send a request for this GA image to GA servers is called a hit/interactions/page view/image request.


Collection of hits till the time a session expires and session expires under three conditions:

1. After 30 min of Inactivity

Let’s say I went to page A from the chrome of my laptop at 1:00 PM, then I went to FK.COM Page B from the chrome of my laptop at 1:10. In this case.

Inactivity: 10 mins

Hits: 2

Sessions: 1 (because of the inactivity period of 10 min)

Let’s take another example

I went to page c from chrome of my laptop at 1:35 pm

Inactivity: 25 min

Hits: 3

Sessions: 1

I shut down my system at 1:40 pm come back from the market at 1:50 restored my system and next to page A of from the chrome of my laptop at 2:00

Inactivity: 25 min

Hits: 4

Sessions: 1

It means shutting down of my system has no impact on my GA session.

2. When the Source is Changed

I go to by clicking on TOI banner source of the session is @ 1:00.

I go to by clicking on an email campaign link at 1:20 pm same mail.

Hits: 2

Session: 2

3. After Midnight

Go to page A from the chrome of my laptop at 11:55 pm.

I went to page B from the chrome of my laptop at 12:02 am.

Hits: 2

Sessions: 2


Visitors who are coming on our digital platform user within GA is identified by the help of client ID.

IF I go to from chrome for the first time GA will check if I have a client ID.

No, because it will allocate a client ID, store it in a cookie and drop that cookie in my system 123456. If next day I come back to using my laptop GA will check if I have a client ID every time is stored in the cookie.

COOKIE: small computers program, designed to store a specific value for a certain period of time. In case of GA cookie lasts for 2years cookie are always browser-based stored on the local system.


BOUNCE:  that session where we have only 1 hit.


                                   High bounce rate good for business is not good.

Retail Company: more than 40% not good

Less than 10-15% means you are doing something wrong

Less than 30% good

Banks: 25-30%

Blogs: 80-90 %


This blog is about the basic of google analytics I cover this because in the field of web analytics google analytics tools plays a very important role. so that this blog gives you the basic idea about google analytics. How it uses in research filed we learn in further blogs.

4 Types of Goals in Google Analytics – How to Make Most of Them?

What are goals and what are different types of goals in Google Analytics? To know more about that lets dive into the basics first. Your Google Analytics account without goal is like life without a purpose. Sure you enjoy tracking how many people visited and where they came from but at the end of the day it should mean something about what you want to gain by driving people to your website.

What actions you want your users to take to which will help you? More importantly, how will you track them?

The comprehensive answer to that very question is Google Analytics Goals!!

Using different types of goals in google analytics you will be able to track who played the video on your website, or how many people downloaded your catalogue or how many people left before finishing the purchase or which page is most popular and many more..

How to Set Goals in Google Analytics?

  • Go to Admin button on your Google Analytics left panel
  • Set the account and view you want to use and then under view tab click goals
  • Press the +Goal button
  • Voila! Select the type of goal and you are done!!

Choose the right view Click on goal in Admin Panel Click on New Goal (Types of Goals in Google Analytics)

Now let’s discuss what these goals actually do.  In Google Analytics, there are four ways to track goals:

  • Destination
  • Time
  • Pages/visit
  • Events

Let’s dig into each of them individually.

  1. Destination Goals

Destination goals keep track of specific URLs. Each time someone visits the specific URL set by you, the goal is triggered.Choose Destination Goal - (Types of Goals in Google Analytics)

When to use?

You should use them on your thank you page, confirmation pages, download pages etc. As these pages are not visible otherwise, so only a unique set of user who perform your desired action will reach here, enabling you to get the most accurate data.

  1. Duration Goal

This goal tells you, how many people spend how much time on a particular page of yours. You have to set the minimum duration bar so that one who stays over that duration should be considered as goal conversion. Also if large portion of users stay below your set time that means the page requires some improvements.

Click on Duration Goal - Types of Goals in Google Analytics

When to use?

Try to go through each of your page from the point of view of a visitor. Try to figure out how quickly a user can go though the content to find relevant information, so if more users are staying below that time that means people are not getting what they want and the page should be tweaked.

  1. Pages/Visit Goals

In this you track the number of pages user goes through per visit to your site. You can set the number of pages and this will help you analyze how many users are actually going through your website, checking all the content available on different pages of your website.

Choose Page Goal

When to use?

Websites with a lot of articles or in which the content is distributed on various pages use this to analyze overall quality of content on their website, so if a user is visiting more than a certain amount of pages you can analyze how much relevant your content is.

  1. Event Goals

This is slightly advanced as compared to other ones, but with advancement of website content it has become a critical point to analyse the popularity of your content.Choose Event Goal

Event goals are used to track any interaction user makes with your website, be it external links, social media buttons, video views, using a widget etc

Events have following components:

  • Category – It is a name that you provide as a way to group objects that you want to track.
  • Action – Is the type of event or interaction you want to track
  • Label – It is the additional for the event you want to track like song name etc
  • Value – You can use it to assign a numerical value to a tracked page object

# As per your need you may use as many or as few of them as you want. The event goal will triggered only if the event matches

When to use?

You should use it when you have a lot of interactive content on your website say, videos, games or widgets etc. This will help you in understanding how many people are interacting with content and help you analyze their behavior.

Other key terms:

Goal Values – Goal values is an option in google analytics which helps you in analysing the worth or revenue wise value of your visitors/customers. You can define goal values for each of your goals and populate your reports with data on where your revenue is coming from.

You can use it for your leads, for eg: if a travel agency got 10 leads during the month which produced $10,000 in revenue. Now, consider the total revenue of $10,000 and divide it by the total number of leads generated i.e. 10 thus this states the worth of each lead is $1,000. That’s the goal value.

Goal Funnels – Goal funnels allow you to monitor exactly how many people move through each step of your marketing process. It shows how many people leave your sales/marketing funnel at each step so you know what pages need fixing. For e.g., build a goal funnel to see how many people move through each step between their shopping cart and the payment page.

As per default setting, Google Analytics will track visitors in the funnel even if they jump into the middle i.e. if they don’t start from first page of your funnel. If you want to make sure that the goal funnel only counts visitors that have started on step 1 and completed the goal, check the required step box.

Well that’s all folks, this was an overview of the goals in Google Analytics. If you like analyzing the users in-depth and get them to make desirable actions for your business, Goals is definitely the top most tool in your toolbox.

Want to dig deep into details of Google Analytics? Master Google Analytics by undergoing a certification.

Photo Credits: Kissmetrics